TOUCH DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN OF EARLY AGE
In the first years of a child’s life, parents need to make every effort so that the baby can train the abilities of their senses. To do this, it is very important to provide him with a whole range of first impressions, thanks to which his psychophysical development will occur much faster and more efficiently. In other words, it is necessary to actively use methods aimed at the sensory development of the child, which we will talk about today.
Sensory development of young children
Experts say that a child is born with natural abilities to know the world through the perception of objects and phenomena. However, for the full development of natural abilities, the growing baby is no longer enough. Therefore, in the first years of a child’s life, parents need to make every effort so that the baby can train the abilities of their senses, as well as improve them in the future.
To do this, it is very important to provide him with a whole range of first impressions, thanks to which his psychophysical development will occur much faster and more efficiently. In other words, it is necessary to actively use methods aimed at the sensory development of the child, which we will talk about today.
WHAT IS TOUCH DEVELOPMENT AND EDUCATION?
Sensory development (sensory) is the process of forming certain ideas about the properties of objects: their size, shape, color, position in space, tastes, smells, etc. When the baby first encounters the variety of forms, colors and events surrounding him (and this happens almost in the very first days of his life), it is important not to miss this time, help him get comfortable in this world and encourage him to improve himself.
It is these goals that are fundamental in the sensory education of the child – a systematic, consistent acquaintance with the so-called sensory culture. Of course, even without the help of the parents, the child, one way or another, learns the world as it is, but this knowledge, without proper sensory development, may turn out to be false or incomplete.
According to experts, sensory development, on the one hand, is the foundation for the general mental development of the baby, and on the other hand, has a completely independent value, as a way of developing children’s sensations, perceptions and ideas. And it is precisely early age that is most favorable for the accumulation and systematization of ideas about the world and the improvement of the activity of the child’s sensory organs.
TYPES OF TOUCH SENSATIONS
Sensory sensations are classified into:
It is in accordance with them that the child forms the concept of:
MAIN SENSORIC OBJECTIVES
The main tasks of children’s sensory development are:
the formation of the correct sensory standards;
the formation of the correct perceptual reactions (sensory perceptions);
acquisition of skills of independently applying the system of standards and the correct response to perceptual processes.
It is important to understand that the sensory education of the child must take into account his age characteristics. With normal development, children under six months of age, as a rule, observe the movement of objects, make grasping movements, and show interest in bright toys and loud sounds. Over time, the baby becomes interested in smells and tastes.
From one to three years, the child acquires basic knowledge about the signs of things around him. It was at this age that he formed the concept of shapes, colors, sizes, tastes and smells. In the fourth year of life, the main ideas about the signs of objects are assimilated, as well as sensory standards are fixed. This is the beginning of the analytical perception of objects and events surrounding the child.
REFERENCE SYSTEM FOR CHILDREN OF EARLY AGES
Sensory standards for children at an early stage of development are considered to be:
nine primary colors of the spectrum;
five geometric shapes (square, triangle, rectangle, circle, oval);
three sizes (sizes) of the subject: large, medium, small;
musical notes, sounds of the native language;
four tastes (sweet, bitter, salty, sour);
two temperature definitions (warm, cold);
five types of smell (sweet, bitter, fresh, light, heavy).
Depending on the age of the baby, the requirements of sensory education suggest the following knowledge and skills.
For age 1.5-2 years:
understanding and ability to name 3-4 colors, as well as choosing them correctly according to the pattern;
orientation in the sizes (sizes) of objects, the ability to disassemble and assemble a three-dimensional nesting doll;
the ability to correctly assemble a colored pyramid of 4-6 rings of different sizes;
the ability to correctly correlate the configuration of volumetric figures with flat ones;
have initial drawing skills (draw horizontal, vertical, short and long lines, as well as clearly explain what he drew).
For ages 2-4 years:
understanding and ability to name 6 colors, and also choose them correctly according to the model