ABILITY OF CHILDREN OF PRESCHOOL AGE
The surrounding society has a great influence on the process of forming talents / abilities of children. In other words, parents should not only provide the child with the opportunity to attend developmental activities in continuing education organizations and children’s centers, but also take an active part in developing their child’s abilities. What is required for this?
Abilities of Preschool Children
The period from birth to 6-7 years is the most favorable time for the development of abilities in a child. Therefore, experts strongly recommend that you pay special attention to the development of the baby precisely in preschool age. At the same time, it is important for parents to understand that every child has certain inclinations from birth, which over time can develop into pronounced abilities.
It is also necessary to take into account the fact that the surrounding society has a great influence on the formation of talents / abilities of children. In other words, parents should not only provide the child with the opportunity to attend developmental activities in continuing education organizations and children’s centers, but also take an active part in developing their child’s abilities. What is required for this?
A LITTLE THEORY WITHOUT IT ANYWHERE!
By systematizing the concept of abilities, we can divide them into two main groups: specific and natural.
Specific (social) abilities are formed under the influence of historical and social influence and ensure the life and development of the child in the social environment. These abilities are based on practical, theoretical, creative and educational knowledge, logic and the use of speech.
Specific abilities are:
Special. Determine the success of the child in certain activities. For the preschool period, such specific abilities are characteristic as: artistic – decorative-applied and graphic (a tendency to sculpt, draw, craft, sketch); theater and speech (a tendency to imitate and perform, the ability to negotiate and engage other children); musical (a tendency to compose music, memorize and play tunes); logical and mathematical (a tendency to memorize mathematical symbols and perform mathematical calculations); technical (interest in mechanisms).
Common. Determine the success of the child in communication and a variety of activities.
General abilities, in turn, are divided into practical (structural, technical and organizational) and cognitive (creative, intellectual and sensory).
Structural and technical – representation of the subject as a whole and in parts. The development of this ability helps to cope with such school subjects as: geometry, physics, drawing, etc. Developing means of such abilities are designers, modular and technical toys.
Organizational – the leading role is given to communication (interaction with peers and adults).
Creative – using imagination and imagination, the child realizes himself in the game, communication and creativity.
Intelligent – visual modeling of an object when a certain object is conditionally replaced by a familiar figure (for example, a map).
Sensory – this includes information about the properties of the subject, phonemes of speech, color, a variety of forms and more.
Note that the division of specific abilities into general and special is very arbitrary, since they are interconnected: general abilities manifest themselves in special ones, and the development of special abilities contributes to the development of general ones.
Natural abilities are formed on the basis of the makings laid down at the genetic level, the development of which largely depends on the presence of a simple life experience (memory, perception, communication).
In general, natural abilities can be characterized by such criteria:
speed of learning knowledge and skills;
predisposition to a certain type of activity;
resistance to stress;
the presence of limit boundaries of ability;
public recognition of unique opportunities;
ABILITY OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN AND THE CONDITIONS OF THEIR FORMATION
Performing actions, the child forms certain abilities. Thus, the competent organization of the baby’s activity will maximize the ability to show and strengthen his abilities in the preschool period.
Basic rules for organizing the activities of the child
Organization of necessary environmental items for global development.
active education increases the likelihood of developing abilities.
adequate adult behavior in relation to a child who is attempting to realize himself (even if these attempts are beyond the scope of generally accepted norms).
familiarization of the baby with all types of activities (corresponding to his age category) to establish his personal interests.