ABOUT METHODS, TECHNOLOGIES AND PROGRAMS OF PRESCHOOL EDUCATION
Today, kindergartens use a wide variety of programs for the education and training of preschool children. However, all of them must comply with state standards of preschool education and be aimed at the development of five basic personal potentials of preschool children
About methods, technologies and programs of preschool education
Unfortunately, many parents today have to devote most of their time not to raising their children, but to work. That is why they are forced to shift the main “burden” of the educational process onto the shoulders of teachers of preschool institutions, where children spend 8-10 hours a day (on weekdays) – that is, almost all the time they are awake.
Kindergarten is the first educational organization in the life of children, where they learn to live in society. It is here that children receive the first skills of independent contact, communication and interaction with people around them. Here they acquire new knowledge and skills, learn independence and master the basics of self-regulation. Here, for the first time, children have to negotiate with other children in order to, for example, get the desired toy, which contributes to the child’s communicative development and his desire to find a common language with strangers.
In other words, in a modern society, a very important mission is assigned to employees of preschool institutions. In many ways, they are responsible for:
preparing each child for school,
the development in children of skills and knowledge typical of their age group,
the development of logical thinking, ingenuity and ingenuity of pupils of DOW,
the upbringing of positive qualities of character and an adequate worldview of children, etc.
Note that today in kindergartens, a variety of programs for the education and training of preschool children are used. However, all of them must comply with state standards of preschool education and be aimed at developing five basic personal potentials of preschool children:
The ideal “model” of a graduate of a preschool educational institution should include the following parameters:
high level of physical development and hardening;
confident possession of the main types of motor activity;
the presence of intellectual prerequisites for effective learning at school;
working capacity, the desire for knowledge and self-development;
developed imagination, interest in creativity;
knowledge of the basic rules of discipline and the foundations of a culture of communication;
ability to interact with the team and awareness of their capabilities.
Depending on the child development program used in the pre-school educational institution, the “model” of the graduate can be supplemented with other characteristics appropriate to the specifics of the educational organization.
PROGRAMS, TECHNOLOGIES, METHODS …
We offer to deal with such concepts as the program of preschool education, technologies and methods of education.
The program of preschool education is a regulatory and administrative document that defines the goals and objectives of the educational process.
Technologies for preschool education – a set of practically sound methods aimed at achieving certain results in educational activities.
Methods of preschool education – methods and forms of work with children aimed at developing the personality of each child in a particular area. We emphasize that each methodology of preschool education is focused on any one side of the development of children. For example, there are methods of physical education, the formation of mathematical representations, the management of visual activity, etc.
That is, if the program of preschool education is just a document where it is written what you need to strive for, then the methods and technologies are a real tool to achieve the goals stated in the program. It should be understood that the techniques are more theoretical in nature, while the technologies are of practical origin. Almost all the technologies existing today are developed by educators and educators based on their own experience of raising and educating children.
By the way, today’s kindergartens use both author’s methods (for example, the Nikitins, Montessori, Doman’s methods, etc.) and methods developed by specialists based on the variability of the Law on Education.
THROUGH TEXTBOOKS TO A UNIFIED SYSTEM OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING
The unified education system that every children’s educational institution in Russia must adhere to is developed by specialists from the Ministry of Education and Science and research institutes in the field of pedagogy. This single area is becoming available to all employees of the educational system through textbooks on the methods of education and training in kindergarten.
Textbooks on teaching methods are created on the basis of the experience of educators around the world, which has been meticulously collected throughout the history of mankind.