CHILD DEVELOPMENT IN PRESCHOOL
In the development of preschool kids, a huge number of various aspects must be taken into account. However, experts identify five basic elements that parents need to pay the closest attention to and harmoniously develop them throughout the entire stage of preparation of the child for school, and as he enters into adulthood. What are these elements? We’ll talk about this today.
Development of preschool children
The childhood of any child consists of certain periods during which children almost every day discover new opportunities and horizons. Each of these periods differs in its features. Including the period of time to which the preschool age belongs (3-7 years), when the child most actively expands the boundaries of his worldview: the world of human relations and various types of human activities opens before him. During this period, his world ceases to exist only within the family and the baby gradually “merges” into the life of society.
Yes, a preschool child cannot yet take a direct and active part in adult life. But he really wants to. Hence the first aspirations for independence (the notorious “I myself”), indefatigable curiosity (“why” well known to every parent) and active manifestations of the initiative (including imitation of adults and attempts to help parents at home: cut bread, wash dishes, grate carrots etc.). In the development of preschool kids, a huge number of various aspects must be taken into account. However, experts identify five basic elements that parents need to pay the closest attention to and harmoniously develop them throughout the entire stage of preparation of the child for school, and as he enters into adulthood. What are these elements? We’ll talk about this today.
FEATURES OF PRESCHOOL DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN
In preschool age, the foundations of self-awareness are particularly intensively developed in children: they learn to evaluate themselves from different points of view: as a good and attentive friend, a diligent, talented, capable person, obedient child, etc. The process of perceiving information ceases to be emotional and becomes more meaningful: the child purposefully searches for information and analyzes it.
Throughout the entire period of preschool age, children not only continue to improve visual-effective thinking, but also the foundation is being formed of visual-figurative and logical thinking, as well as the formation of imagination. Note that the first manifestations of imagination are observed even at the earliest preschool age, since just by the age of three, a child already has enough life experience that can provide material for imagination.
With the development of imagination and thinking, the development of speech is inextricably linked. If, by the age of three, more or less literate spoken language is just beginning to take shape, then by the age of seven the child speaks more than well. In turn, the development of speech has a direct impact on the development of voluntary attention. Thanks to activities that require conscious memorization of objects, actions or words (games, feasible domestic work, completing assignments, etc.), children at 3-4 years old begin to remember consciously.
Now let’s dwell in more detail on the above-mentioned aspects of the development of children in preschool age.
BASIC ASPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT IN PRESCHOOL
One of the main characteristics of the development of children in preschool age is the formation of arbitrariness in leading mental processes:
perceptions – children consider everything and observe everything in order to then analyze the information received. They know how to describe an object in shape and size, know the basic colors and their shades, successfully master a system of sensory attributes (for example, round like a ball);
memory – at three years old, the child’s memory is involuntary, and therefore he remembers only what caused him emotions. However, by the age of four or five, a preschooler begins to form an arbitrary memory – conscious remembering, for example, of the elements and rules of the game;
thinking – preschool children are characterized by a gradual transition from visual-effective to visual-figurative thinking and the development of initial forms of reasoning and logical thinking: in 4 years, thinking is based on objective actions, in 5 years, thinking anticipates action, in 6-7 years – action carried over to similar situations.
The mental development of children is influenced, first of all, by the close environment of the child and heredity. Therefore, it is very important for parents to learn to accept and understand their child and interact with him as efficiently as possible. This is largely helped by special trainings, which are organized on the basis of developing centers.