PSYCHOLOGY AND PRESCHOOL DEVELOPMENT
Without knowledge of the psychology of preschool age, it is very difficult for parents to correctly not only build relationships with their child, but also organize an educational and developmental process. That is why today we suggest you familiarize yourself with the developmental features of preschoolers.
Psychology and development of a preschooler
The period of preschool age is marked by a three-year recovery from the crisis, as well as a restructuring of the specifics of relationships with people around them and attitudes towards the world. The child’s social contact system is gradually expanding beyond the family.
Specialists call the early preschool age the beginning of the formation of a little man as a person, and by the age of 5-6, he develops the most important character traits. The baby has friends, new hobbies and he seeks to take his first step into a “big” life, he wants to quickly become a schoolboy. The task of parents at this stage is to organize an interesting and comprehensive preparation for the learning process.
Of course, without knowledge of the psychology of preschool age, it is very difficult for parents to correctly not only build relationships with their child, but also organize an educational and developmental process. That is why today we suggest you familiarize yourself with the developmental features of preschoolers.
PSYCHOLOGY OF YOUNGER PRESCHOOL AGE
Preschoolers are considered to be children aged three to six (seven) years. At this age, the child is psychologically ready for interaction with other children and joining the team. That is why enrollment in kindergarten is carried out from 3 years of age.
At 3 years old, the baby makes friends, although there is no real friendship yet. The child learns to build relationships with others, to resolve disputed and conflicting moments, seeks to participate in role-playing games and joint work. This helps him realize that he is a social being, part of society.
Teach him constructive communication with other children, for example, help try to restrain his aggression and negative emotions. The child must understand that you cannot offend your peers. Tell him to make concessions and share his toys with your friends if they ask. These skills will help him successfully and painlessly get used to the conditions of the kindergarten.
PSYCHOLOGY OF THE OLD PRESCHOOL AGE
At five years old, the baby becomes more attentive, patient, assiduous. The kid is already capable for some time to fully engage (listen and remember information). At this age, the personality of the child is formed. This is due to the subordination of motives, that is, the child is already able to control his desires and do not what he wants, but what he needs. The leading motive is adult encouragement and approval, not fear of punishment.
The child becomes more independent and consistent in their actions. Gradually, he learns to focus not on external rules, but tries to follow his own. A preschooler can make an effort on himself and perform uninteresting, monotonous work (for example, collect toys, because it is necessary to maintain order in the apartment). A certain independence allows him to feel his own independence and significance.
Of course, a child of preschool age has not yet formed moral assessments and moral principles. But simple ideas about good and evil already exist. He understands that adults need to be respected and obeyed, that some actions are considered unworthy and shameful, while others, on the contrary, will serve as an occasion for pride.
Such qualities as magnanimity and kindness begin to take hold of him. It is necessary to cultivate in him the ability to take care of close people, take into account their needs and desires, and be ready to compromise. If, the baby decided to share her favorite candy with you, do not refuse, let her feel the joy of the opportunity to share with others.
At five or six years old, the fears of a preschooler are most acute. It is important to help him in this period successfully cope with them, overcome them, and not make him deny and ignore. At the age of six, the baby comes to the realization that life is finite. This can lead to the formation of a “fear of death.” The child begins to fear his own death or loss of loved ones. Understanding the root cause of this or that fear is the key to an effective fight against it.
PRESCHOOL AGE – THE AGE OF “WHY” AND ALL-POSSIBLE GAMES
Sometimes preschool age is called the “period of questions.” This is not surprising, because a child can generate its “why”, “how” and “why” by hundreds, sometimes confusing adults. You need to be patient and try to clearly and clearly reveal the essence of the phenomenon that interests him. Perhaps the baby will ask again, and ask to explain again. Do not be nervous and repeat as much as the child will be interested. These repetitions will help him better understand the structure of the world.